What is Glucono Delta Lactone (E575) in Food? Uses, Safety, Side Effects

What is Glucono Delta Lactone (E575) in Food? Uses, Safety, Side Effects


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Glucono delta lactone (abbreviated GDL), also known as glucosyl-delta-lactone, 1,4-alpha-glucosyl-delta-lactone, [3-(Dihydrogencarbonyloxy) -1,4] -D-gluconic acid lactone, 4-Haem/4-Him/HAcL, or RBD glucose; C6H12O6·C6H10O5·C3H8O3 is a food additive. It is an organic compound; a beta–keto ester of gluconic acid. This article is about what is Glucono Delta Lactone in food, as well as its uses, safety, and side effects.


What is glucono delta lactone?

Glucose is a monosaccharide, a simple sugar that is one of the fundamental units of carbohydrates. Glucono delta lactone (gluconolactone) is an organic compound with formula C6H11O7. It is a keto acid formed by hydrolysis of lactone ring in gluconic acid.

Glucono Delta Lactone or GDL was first produced in 1892 by German chemist Alfred Einhorn who extracted it from apples. He called it “Pectinase” as he thought it was an enzyme. GDL has been used for many years as a food additive and preservative, though its use has been limited due to concerns about safety.

In the past few decades, however, the use of GDL has grown significantly due to its ability to prevent browning in foods such as applesauce and fruit juices after canning or bottling.

How is glucono delta lactone made?

Glucono delta lactone (GDL) is a food additive produced by fermentation of glucose. It is a white crystalline powder that is used as a food acidulant, pH control agent and flavoring. Glucono delta lactone can be found naturally in fruits and vegetables such as kiwi, strawberries, tomatoes and pineapple.

Glucono delta lactone is manufactured through the fermentation of glucose by Aspergillus glaucus fungus. The process involves the following steps:

1. Glucose is converted into gluconic acid by enzyme action or by oxidation with sodium hypochlorite or hydrogen peroxide.

2. Gluconic acid is then converted into glucono delta lactone by enzyme action or by reaction with potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide solution in water at high temperatures for about 3 hours (around 80°C).


Other Names
  • Glucono-δ-lactone
  • Delta gluconolactone
  • D-gluconolactone
  • Gluconic acid lactone
  • D-gluconic acid delta-lactone
  • D-glucono-1,5-lactone
CAS Number 90-80-2
Chemical formula C6H10O6
Molecular Weight 178.140
Melting Point 150–153 °C


Other acidity regulators, such as citric acid, malic acid, and fumaric acid, are less commonly used than GDL.
There are two major characteristics that distinguish it from other products:
  1. As a slow-release acidulant, it gradually and continuously decreases pH by hydrolyzing to gluconic acid.
  2. The initial sweetness of GDL makes the final taste of its aqueous solution more pleasant than that of other common acidulants.


Crystalline powder or granules that are white and odourless.


59g/100 mL (water) at 25°C, freely soluble in water.

In organic solvents: slightly soluble in alcohol.

How is glucono delta lactone used?

Glucono delta-lactone is a 100% food grade chemical. It is used in the food industry as a flavor enhancer, preservative and stabilizer.

This product is also used in the cosmetic industry as a skin conditioning agent and as a chelating agent. This product can be used in toothpaste, mouthwash and hair care products for its antimicrobial properties.

Glucono delta-lactone has many other uses as well such as in the pharmaceutical industry for the manufacture of some tablets and capsules where it acts as an excipient or bulking agent. It is also used by the textile industry to dye cotton cloths with bright colors since it has good solubility in water. It can also be used to dye woolen fabrics to give them bright hues as well.

Coagulant in Tofu

Tofu can be curdled with glutono delta-lactone because its gradual acidification initiates the curdling process. As an alternative to nigari, or in combination with nigari in tofu, it can replace the function of nigari. How to make silken tofu with GDL is described below.

Step 1: Choosing beans

Light white soybeans with good color and high protein content are recommended.

Step 2: Soaking beans

Beans should be soaked for the appropriate amount of time and at the appropriate temperature. When beans are soaked too long, they ferment easily and lose protein. Incubating tofu for a short time and using less soy milk will reduce its quality and yield.
You can soak 500 g of dry soybeans to obtain 1000 g – 1100 g of wet soybeans by soaking them for a couple of hours.
You should soak for 6 – 7 hours at 15 °C, or 5 hours at 20 °C, and up to 10 hours in winter.
Using soft water, such as surface water or tap water, is preferred for soaking beans. Baking soda should also be added, about one thousandth of the bean’s weight, to adjust the pH value of the water to promote protein leaching. Water should be sufficient to completely submerge soybeans.

Step 3: Refining

The machine can be used with a stone milling or refining machine. Grinding wet beans twice and adding water while grinding is required. 1500 grams added at the first refining, and 750 grams at the second refining.

Step 4: Discharge Air Out

Pour 20-30 grams of edible oil into the heated pot, then add some warm water (about 50°C) and stir for 5 minutes, until the oil has boiled.

This step is mainly for discharging the air out of the soy milk and reducing the viscosity so that the milk can filter rapidly and thoroughly.

Step 5: Filter

In order to separate soy dregs from soy milk, cloth or gauze can be used as a filter. Water at 60°C is used several times, and the filter residue is stirred while the water is being added. A total of 1750 grams of water is used in this process in order to get pure.
The goal of this step is to obtain soy milk or protein completely from the dregs of soy beans.

Step 6: Cooking

Cooking pure soy milk over a very hot fire.

Step 7: Making Tofu

There are two ways to make soft tofu: the cold process and the thermal process.
Cold process: cool the soy milk below 30 °C, then add 9 grams of GDL (less with nigari). Place soy milk in a smooth box or a food bag, steam it for 25 minutes, or directly place the box or bag in boiling water for 25 minutes, and wait until it cools.

Thermal process: cool the soy milk down to 90 °C, then add GDL and stir it. For 15 minutes, place the soy milk in the box.

Leavening acid in bakery

In baked goods, the combination of Glucono delta-lactone and baking soda would make a suitable leavening agent.

GDL is converted to gluconic acid when it is in contact with water. Gluconic acid reacts with sodium bicarbonate to produce carbon dioxide, which increases dough volume and causes the bread to rise.

The following are the preparation steps for baking with GDL:

  • Step 1: To mix GDL with baking soda in a 2:1 ratio to make a quick-acting leavening agent.
  • Step 2: 1. The weight of 500 grams of flour. 2. The mixture of GDL and baking soda prepared in step 1 should weigh 10.25g. The amount should be 2.5% of the flour’s weight. Stir the mixture into the flour.
  • Step 3: Add 300 grams of cold water to the mixture prepared in step 2.
  • Step 4: Knead the dough to a soft consistency without adding fermented ingredients.
  • Step 5: You can get soft bakery products by steaming them.

Acidifier in meat products

In meat products, glucono delta-lactone can act as an acidity regulator and a color enhancer, especially in dry-cured sausages, which require a slow release of acid. Furthermore, it functions as a preservative because it lowers the pH, which inhibits the growth of bacteria.

The GDL can reduce the level of nitrite in meat, accelerate the curing process, and produce a more stable product with a longer shelf life.

Color stabilizer

GDL can provide a bright color and keep the color unchanged or stable in meat products. As well as providing fresh & tender meat products, it acts as a reliable preservative and lowers the amount of nitrosamines by lowering the amount of nitrites used.


In the production of raw sausages, acidification is essential for the coagulation of meat proteins. GDL will enhance the ripening and curing process of sausages. As compared to other food acidulants, GDL’s acidification is mild, with only one-third the sourness of citric acid.

Other food

Cheese, dairy products, canned food, desserts, salads, sauces, soups, mayonnaise, etc.


In cosmetics and personal care products, GDL is commonly referred to as gluconolactone. As per the European Commission database for information on cosmetic ingredients and substances, it generally has chelating and skin conditioning properties.

Gluconolactone may be found in the following products:

  • Skin care products
  • Hair products
  • toothpaste
  • deodorant
  • Cream
  • lotions

Is glucono delta lactone safe to eat?

Glucono delta lactone is a food additive that is used as an acidity regulator. It has been approved by the FDA for use in certain foods. Glucono delta lactone is considered safe to consume, but it should be avoided by people who are allergic to tartaric acid or any of its salts, such as potassium hydrogen tartrate, sodium hydrogen tartrate and calcium hydrogen tartrate.

Glucono delta lactone is a salt that is composed of gluconic acid and sodium chloride. The salt is also known as glucosylsodium gluconate or saccharin sodium salt. Glucono delta lactone is used as an acidity regulator in foods such as canned fruits and vegetables, jams and jellies, canned meats and poultry products and non-dairy creamers.

The FDA has approved the use of glucono delta lactone at concentrations up to 0.5 percent in canned fruits without added sugar and at concentrations up to 0.2 percent in canned vegetables without added sugar.


As a direct human food ingredient, glucono delta lactone has been deemed generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the FDA. Besides being a curing and pickling agent, a leavening agent, a pH control agent, and a sequestrant in food, it has no restrictions other than current safe manufacturing practice.


According to Regulation (EU) No 231/2012, glucono-delta-lactone (E575) is a food additive that falls under the category of “Additives other than colors and sweeteners”.

Approved uses and usage

In class I, GDL is classified with the use level “quantum satis”, which means its uses are unrestricted.

It may be found in the following foods:

  • Mozzarella
  • Ripened cheese (products), whey cheese
  • Fruits and vegetables in cans or bottles
  • Fresh (pre-cooked) pasta
  • For babies and young children, biscuits and rusks are available

UK Food Standards Agency

This item is categorized as “Others”

Food Standards Australia New Zealand

The code number 575 indicates it is an approved ingredient in Australia and New Zealand.


Function Class: food additives, acidity regulator, raising agent and sequestrant.

Permissible daily intake: ADI “not specific” set in 1998, also for sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium salts of gluconate.

What is the side effects of glucono delta lactone?

Glucose delta-lactone is a drug used for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. It is indicated for use in addition to insulin in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. It works by helping to restore normal blood glucose levels, which results in improved symptoms.

Common side effects associated with Glucose Delta-Lactone include:

  • Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
  • Headache.
  • Dizziness.
  • Injection site reactions (redness, swelling and itching).

Is GDL safe for pregnant?

You should consult your doctor if you want to know what it is safe to use under what conditions.

What is glucono delta lactone derived from?

Glucose is a simple sugar that is the main source of energy for the body. It is found in many foods and drinks, including fruit and vegetables, grains, legumes and dairy products. Glucose also occurs naturally in the body when carbohydrates are broken down during digestion.

Glucono delta lactone (GDL) is a food additive used as an emulsifier and thickener in foods such as ice cream, yogurt and salad dressings. It’s also used to improve the shelf life of foods by preventing fat from separating from them.

GDL can be obtained by hydrolyzing lactose or starch with acid or enzymes into gluconic acid or glucose monohydrate respectively.

Glucono delta lactone dairy free?

Glucono delta lactone (GDL) is a food additive that is used as a stabilizer and thickener in many foods. It can be used in dairy products, meat products, and beverages. It does not have any effect on taste or smell of the product. The main function of GDL is to reduce acidity in foods.

It is also used as a preservative for fruit juices, jams, jellies, and other foods that need to be canned or stored at room temperature. It helps prevent bacterial growth by lowering the pH level of the product. This reduces the amount of oxygen available for microorganisms to grow on your food so they cannot grow and multiply like they would if there were no GDL present in it.

GDL is also used as an emulsifier because it acts like an egg white protein when added to liquids and gives them body and texture when cooked at high temperatures such as frying or baking. This makes it possible to make items such as pancakes that are crispy on the outside but fluffy on the inside without adding eggs into them which are high in fat content which could make them unhealthy if eaten frequently over time.

Glucono delta lactone nutritional information?

Glucono delta lactone, also known as GDL, is a white crystalline powder with a bitter taste. GDL is used to remove the small amount of oxygen that remains in beer after the fermentation process. It’s found naturally in the body and is produced by the breakdown of glucose into lactic acid. GDL has been studied for its ability to lower blood sugar levels, improve insulin sensitivity and slow aging in rats. A study published in the “Journal of Pharmacological Sciences” in 2009 showed that GDL may help protect against oxidative stress and reduce inflammation.

Glucono delta lactone nutritional information can be found below:

  • Serving size: 1g
  • Calories: 0 per serving
  • Total fat: 0g per serving
  • Saturated fat: 0g per serving
  • Trans fat: 0g per serving
  • Cholesterol: 0mg per serving
  • Sodium: 0mg per serving

Glucono delta lactone solubility?

Glucono delta lactone is a food additive that is used as a preservative in many foods. Glucono delta lactone is also commonly known by its abbreviation GDL or E-1702. It is also used to enhance the taste of food, as well as its color and texture. GDL has a high acidity level which can help prevent spoilage of certain foods.

Glucono delta lactone solubility

Glucono delta lactone is not soluble in water but it can be dissolved in alcohols, ketones and esters. The solubility of this compound depends on its concentration and temperature.

Where to buy glucono delta lactone?

Glucono delta lactone (GDL) is one of the most important food additives that is used for maintaining the quality of beverages and foods. It is also known as glucosyl lactone, gluconolactone and glucuronic acid lactone. This additive is used in many applications such as wine, beer and fruit juice production.

The main purpose of adding this compound to foods is to enhance their taste and flavor by increasing the sweetness levels. GDL does not alter the color or taste of the final product, but it makes the beverage sweeter by increasing its natural sugar content. The sweetness levels can be controlled by varying the amount of GDL added to the food products.

GDL can be easily purchased online from various websites. You can also buy it from local stores if they have it in stock at that time.

Frequently Asked Questions

Is Glucono delta-lactone dairy origin?

Glucono delta-lactone is produced from lactose. It is a byproduct of the production of lactose and is used in many products such as breads, cakes, and meats. Glucono delta-lactone is also used in the manufacture of vitamins and antibiotics.

Glucono delta-lactone is made by reacting lactose with sulfuric acid. The carbon dioxide that is released from this reaction forms an ester bond with gluconic acid to form glucopyranose acid. This product has a sweet taste and can be used as an artificial sweetener for foods and beverages.

Is Glucono delta-lactone vegan?

The short answer is yes, Glucono delta-lactone (also known as gluconolactone) is vegan.

Glucono delta-lactone is a byproduct produced during the fermentation of glucose. The fermentation process occurs when bacteria breaks down the glucose molecule and converts it into alcohol or acid. This process has been around since the beginning of time and has been used extensively in bread making, wine making and cheese making to name a few examples.

The vegan community has taken an interest in Glucono delta-lactone for its potential health benefits such as lowering blood sugar levels and improving digestion. Glucono delta-lactone has also been found to be effective against candida yeast infections which makes it popular with those following a candida diet such as the candida diet or low carb diet.

Is Glucono delta-lactone natural?

Glucono delta-lactone is a natural product, it is an organic compound and there are no synthetic versions of this substance. It is produced by the fermentation of glucose by Lactobacillus plantarum.

Glucono delta-lactone (also known as gluconolactone) is a food additive that can be used to preserve food in the same way as sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and calcium propionate. Glucono delta-lactone has also been shown to reduce browning when added to tomato juice.

The compound has many uses in the food industry including preventing discoloration in fruit juices and apple cider vinegar.

Is Glucono delta-lactone Halal?

Glucono delta-lactone is a food additive and is used as a chelating agent, sequestrant, flavoring agent, preservative, antioxidant and acidity regulator in foods. Glucono delta-lactone is also used in the treatment of lead poisoning.

Glucono delta-lactone is Halal. It is made from corn starch or potato starch and has no animal ingredients or any alcohol.

Is Glucono delta-lactone Kosher?

The answer is yes. Glucono delta-lactone is a kosher food product. The OU symbol on the bottle means that the ingredients are kosher and meet the requirements of Orthodox Union Kashrut Law.

Is Glucono delta-lactone Gluten free?

Yes. Glucono delta-lactone is a food additive and it is not a component of any food ingredient. It is used as a stabilizer for many products. It can be added to foods that are made from ingredients that contain gluten such as beer, wine and distilled alcohols.

Glucono delta-lactone is also used in baking powder, chewing gum, frozen desserts, hard candy, ice cream, jelly candy and soft candy.


Glucono delta lactone is considered to be a safe substance as well as useful. It helps in maintaining the pH levels in food and beverages, thus preventing spoilage. It can help to protect food from growth of bacteria and moulds, thereby ensuring good quality. Although glucono delta lactone was first approved for use in foods as a preservative in 2002, it has been used since 1972 because of its antimicrobial properties. The most common types of glucono delta lactone used in foods are sodium gluconate, potassium gluconate and calcium gluconate

Sophie Feng

Sophie Feng

Sophie Feng is the author of gradechemical.com, she is the co-founder of the grade chemical network. She has been in grade chemical company since 2017, with a working knowledge of food chemical .

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