What is PGPR E476 in Chocolate? Uses, Safe, Side Effects

What is PGPR E476 in Chocolate? Uses, Safe, Side Effects

What is PGPR

Table of Contents

Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR), a compound extracted from Castor oil, is usually used as an emulsifier in food manufacturing, and is also extensively used in cosmetics.

A food grade version of PGPR is known by the E number E476 and it is approved by the FDA as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) additive. However, despite its wide applications in industry due to its good properties relating to emulsification stability, texture and mouthfeel characteristics, intake of PGPR has been reported to act as an irritant in clinical studies.

What is polyglycerol polyricinoleate?

Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) is an additive used in food, cosmetics and personal care products. It’s made from the fatty acid ricinoleic acid (a component of castor oil), and glycerol, a glyceride of propane-1,2,3-triol.

Polyglycerol polyricinoleate is a yellow oily liquid that is soluble in water and alcohol. It’s used as an emulsifier and thickening agent in foods such as ice cream, salad dressing, mayonnaise and other sauces.

It’s also used as a surfactant or wetting agent to promote wetting agents and detergents, as well as to prevent separation of phases in emulsions.

What is polyglycerol polyricinoleate sigma?

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate Sigma is a food additive used as an emulsifier, stabilizer and thickener. It is a white to off-white waxy solid that is soluble in water, alcohol and glycerol.

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate Sigma is used in the food industry as an emulsifier and stabilizer in ice cream, cheese spreads, salad dressings, whipped toppings and margarines. It can also be used to improve the texture of breads, cakes and creams.

Fatty acids in castor oil

Castor oil is a vegetable oil that is extracted from castor beans. Almost all of the oil is composed of ricinoleic acid (85–95%). Moreover, there are oleic acid (2–6%), linoleic acid (1–5%), stearic acid (0.5–1%), and palmitic acid (0.5–1%).

What is PGPR in reese’s?

Polyglycerol polyricinoleate is an emulsifier that has been used in the food industry since the 1960s. It’s generally used as a substitute for trans fats and can be found in many processed foods.

Reese’s Peanut Butter Cups are one of the most popular candies in America, with more than 1 billion sold each year. The chocolate coating on these peanut butter cups is made with cocoa butter, which is derived from cocoa beans and has a natural antioxidant called flavanol.

The peanut butter filling inside the cups contains hydrogenated palm kernel oil and hydrogenated palm oil, both of which are plant-based oils that contain trans fats. (There are no animal products in Reese’s Peanut Butter Cups.)

To replace those trans fats, Hershey’s replaced them with polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR). PGPR is considered safe by the FDA and has been added to foods since 1963 without any reported adverse effects in humans or animals.

What is PGPR in biofertilizer?

Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) is a natural surfactant produced by the fermentation of castor seeds. It is used as a biofertilizer to enhance the water-holding capacity of soils, improve plant growth and increase crop yields.

Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) has been used as a biofertilizer for many years in China, India and Brazil. It is also used as an emulsifier in personal care products, such as makeup and sunscreens.

Polyglycerol polyricinoleate is produced through a fermentation process using castor beans. The beans are fed to fungi which convert them into fatty acids and glycerol. These are then mixed with the fungal biomass before being heated to extract the PGPR from the mixture.

Where does polyethylene glycol come from?

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polymer that is used in many different applications. The most common use of PEG is as a thickener, but it has many other uses as well.

The abbreviation for polyethylene glycol is PEG. It can be found in many products, including shampoos, conditioners, body lotions, moisturizers, toothpaste and mouthwashes, hand sanitizers, sunscreens and so much more.

PEG is also used to make polyurethane products such as paints, adhesives and sealants. It’s also used in cosmetics because it has been proven safe for people to use on their skin and hair. The cosmetic industry uses PEG to help keep the ingredients in their products from separating out when they’re bottled up or packaged together into boxes or jars before being sold at stores like Walmart or Target.

PEG is also used in some medications to help them go down easier when they’re taken orally by mouth instead of getting injected directly into your blood stream through an IV line like they would be if you were in the hospital having surgery done on your broken leg or something like that where they’d give you antibiotics intravenously.

Where is polyethylene glycol found?

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polymer made up of repeating ethylene oxide units. It’s often used as an emulsifier, thickener and stabilizer in foods, but it’s also found in personal care products such as toothpaste and mouthwash.

Polyethylene glycol is found in many cosmetic products including:

  • Shampoos and conditioners
  • Toothpastes
  • Lip balms and other lip products
  • Skin creams and lotions

What other food may contain PGPR?

Polyglycerol polyricinoleate is a common food additive that can be found in many foods. It’s primarily used to improve the texture and shelf life of foods, but it’s also often added to products to enhance their flavor or appearance.

Other foods that may contain this ingredient include:

  • Baked goods such as bread, cookies, crackers and bagels
  • Chocolate products such as candy bars and hot chocolate mix
  • Corn oil
  • Fats and oils such as shortening, margarine and salad dressing
  • Frozen desserts like ice cream, sherbet and popsicles
  • Granola bars and granola mixes (including those made at home)
  • Instant potatoes such as mashed potatoes or potato flakes
  • Margarine spreads such as butter-flavored or olive oil spreads (butter-flavored margarine contains PGPR)
  • Mayonnaise for cooking or baking use (mayonnaise does not contain PGPR)

What is the uses of polyglycerol polyricinoleate?

Polyglyceryl polyoleate (PGPR) is a fat substitute. PEG is used in a wide range of applications and its use is increasing as technology improves. It is used in foods such as ice cream, yogurt, margarine and salad dressings, is used to improve the texture of baked goods, and is used in many pharmaceuticals and supplements. The number of products containing PEG is increasing every year.

Where is polyethylene glycol used? A fat substitute is a food additive that replaces some or all of the fat in a product without significantly affecting its taste or texture. Some fat substitutes are made from natural ingredients like stevia, while others are synthesized in a lab.

The most common reason to use PGPR as a fat substitute is to increase the protein content of foods without sacrificing taste or texture. The product helps maintain moisture levels in foods like frozen desserts and baked goods by preventing water loss during storage. It also helps prevent changes in flavor and color caused by oxidation after processing and can enhance the appearance of food products with its glossy shine and smooth texture.

Polyethylene glycol is used in cosmetics and personal care products, including toothpaste, shampoo, and skin lotions. The chemical has been shown to reduce the symptoms of dry skin and eczema by reducing water loss through the skin’s outer layer. It can also be used as a thickening agent in many cosmetic products.

PEGs have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat hyperkalemia (high potassium levels) caused by kidney failure or certain medications like diuretics. These PEGs bind to potassium ions in the bloodstream and help remove them from your body through urination or feces so that they do not build up in your system over time (which could lead to heart problems).

PEGs can also be used for IV therapy because they are nontoxic and nonallergenic, making them safer than other types of IV solutions such as saline or dextrose water (D5W).

What’s PGPR in chocolate?

You can often find it in the ingredients list of chocolate candy you buy at the supermarket. Here are some of its functions in chocolate.

1. Viscosity reduction agent

PGPR reduces viscosity and prevents crystallization of cocoa butter during tempering process, which helps prevent bloom formation on the surface of chocolate during storage or transportation. It also lowers viscosity and increases plasticity of confectionery fats.

2. Eliminating bubble formation, empty holes

PGPR improves aeration capacity of cocoa butter during tempering process, which helps eliminate bubble formation and eliminate empty holes on the surface of chocolate after cooling down from tempering temperature (40-45°C). This makes chocolate more delicate and smooth than non-tempered chocolate.

3. Synergistic with lecithin

Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) is a synergist that helps cocoa butter to flow more smoothly. It is a chemically modified form of palm oil, but it is also made from castor oil and other vegetable sources. The PGPR industry uses lecithin as the raw material source for their product, so they claim that the synergy between PGPR and lecithin is responsible for the positive effect it has on cocoa butter’s texture.

4. Reduction of cocoa butter 

The reduction of cocoa butter in chocolate is the process by which chocolate manufacturers decrease the amount of fat in their products. This process can be achieved through several different ways: adding fillers such as vegetable oils or fats; using less cocoa butter; using less sugar; using less milk powder; or blending together different types of chocolates that have been processed differently (e.g., dark and milk). As long as creaminess is not affected, there is no problem with reducing cocoa butter content in chocolate products.

What is PGPR made from?

Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) is a food additive that comes from castor oil. It is a white or yellowish powder or granule. It is used as an emulsifier, thickener and anti-caking agent in many foods such as milk chocolate, butter, margarine, ice cream and other products.

Polyglycerol polyricinoleate is also used in cosmetic products to prevent oil from separating from water-based products like shampoos and skin lotions. In some countries, it can be found in toothpaste, mouthwash, chewing gum and other oral care products as an emulsifier.

PGPR is a mixture of glycerol esters of ricinoleic acid (85%) and fatty acids (15%). The structure of the molecule contains both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions that allow it to act as an emulsifier by stabilizing oil-and-water mixtures at low concentrations while allowing them to mix freely at high concentrations.

How is PGPR made?

PGPR is a mixture of esterified products made by esterifying polyglycerol and castor oil fatty acids. In brief, the manufacturing process involves three steps:

1. Polyglycerols preparation: Polyglycerol polyricinoleate is prepared by the condensation of a mixture of unsaturated castor oil fatty acids (mainly ricinoleic acid) and glycerol. The resulting product is then esterified with ethylene oxide or propylene oxide in order to make it more hydrophobic, thereby increasing its solubility in oils and fats.

2. Condensation of the castor oil fatty acids: The castor oil fatty acids used for the manufacture of polyglycerol polyricinoleate are obtained from castor beans. They are first purified by fractional distillation followed by saponification with sodium hydroxide solution. The resulting fatty acid salts are then converted into their free acids by hydrolysis with sulfuric acid. This reaction leads to an increase in molecular weight, which is why it was chosen for this purpose.

3. Esterification: Esterification is a chemical reaction that joins an alcohol and an acid to form an ester. This reaction is typically done in the presence of heat and a catalyst. In the case of polyglycerol polyricinoleate, the catalyst is usually potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide. The reaction can be reversed if strong acids are added to it.

Specification

Other Names
  • Polyglycerol esters of interesterified ricinoleic acid
  • Glyceran esters of condensed castor oil fatty acids
  • Polyglycerol esters of polycondensed fatty acids from castor oil
CAS Number 29894-35-7
Chemical formula (C3H5O2)n(C18H32O2)m
Molecular Weight NA

Appearance

Clear and highly viscous liquid.

HLB Value

A very strong lipophilic W/O emulsifier, it can form stable emulsions even when water content is very high.

Solubility

It is insoluble in water and ethanol; soluble in ether.

Structure

pgpr-structure-300x173-6934364-7868641


The structure of PGPR consists of polyglycerol as a hydrophilic group and interesterified ricinoleic fatty acids as a hydrophobic group.

Is PGPR safe to Eat?

PGPR has been approved as a safe emulsifier by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

FDA

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved PGPR as a safe food additive. It is listed on the FDA GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) list. This means that there is no evidence to suggest that PGPR causes harm when consumed in small amounts by humans.

EFSA

As an authorised food additive, polyglycerol polyricinoleate (E476) is listed in Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012 under “Additives other than colours and sweeteners”.

Safety re-evaluation in 2017

According to the EFSA, after examining genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, polyglycerol polyricinoleate is not a safety concern at the permitted levels and uses in 2017, with the following conclusions:

Following oral administration, PGPR is metabolized into free polyglycerols, polyricinoleic acid, and free ricinoleic acid in rats.

  • Ricinoleic acid: As an edible fats and oils, it is safe and is neither toxicologically concerning nor allergenic.
  • Polyglycerol: Polymer blends of aliphatic baromatic polyesters used in plasticisers can be safely contacted with all types of food at maximum levels of 6.5% weight/weight.

ADI: In 2020, EFSA may change the acceptable daily intake level (ADI) from 7.5 mg/kg body weight per day to 25 mg/kg body weight per day after a 2-year combined chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity study determined that 2,500 mg/kg body weight is not associated with adverse effects.

UK Food Standards Agency

Categorized in “Emulsifiers, stabilisers, thickeners, gelling agents”

Food Standards Australia New Zealand

The code number 476 is an approved ingredient in Australia and New Zealand.

JECFA (Joint FAO or WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives)

Function Class: food additives and emulsifier.

Acceptable daily intake: The ADI “7.5 mg/kg bw” was set in 1973.

What is PGPR side effects?

Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (also known as PGPR, PGP, and Poly-G) is a food additive used to replace trans fats in processed foods. It is approved by the FDA and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).

Side Effects of Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate

There are no known side effects of PGPR when used in food products. It’s possible that there could be some allergic reactions to the ingredient, but so far there has been no research suggesting this is the case.

The only known side effect of PGPR is that it may cause gastrointestinal symptoms like diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting in people who are sensitive or allergic to soy or corn.

Does PGPR cause cancer?

The short answer is no, polyglycerol polyricinoleate does not cause cancer.

Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) is a compound used as an emulsifier in food production. It is an approved food additive by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Union (EU). However, some studies claim that this compound can be harmful to humans, while other studies claim that it is safe.

The safety of PGPR has been questioned due to its similarity to BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole) and BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene), both of which have been banned in several countries for their potential toxicity. Although these compounds are similar, they are not identical. Additionally, PGPR does not contain any hydrogenated oils or artificial colorants like those found in BHA/BHT. This means that it does not contain trans fats or other potentially harmful ingredients.

In addition to these differences between PGPR and BHA/BHT, there have been no documented cases of adverse health effects from ingestion of PGPR in humans or animals. The FDA has determined that there are no concerns about the safety of PGPR based on its current use.

Overview Studies

It is a food additive used in food to improve texture and prevent crystallization.

In rats, PGPR caused increased tumor incidence and multiplicity in some studies. A meta-analysis published in 2014 found that PGPR did not increase tumor incidence or multiplicity.

A 2015 study in mice found that PGPR caused DNA damage but not cancer.

In 2017, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reviewed the existing evidence on PGPR and concluded that it “does not meet the criteria for classification as a carcinogen”.

Where to buy polyglycerol polyricinoleate?

Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) is a nonionic surfactant and emulsifier used in food and personal care products to reduce the surface tension of water, thereby increasing the solubility of hydrophobic materials. It’s also used in cosmetics to reduce the greasiness of creams and lotions.

It can be purchased from many online retailers, including Amazon, or specialty chemical suppliers.

Frequently asked questions

Is PGPR natural?

There is no natural source for it, as it is derived from a reaction between glycerol and fatty acids.

Is PGPR halal?

Yes, PGPR is halal. PGPR stands for polyglycerol polyricinoleate. It’s a synthetic triglyceride that’s used as a food ingredient. It’s considered halal because it contains no animal products, and the way it’s made doesn’t involve any prohibited substances or processes.

Is PGPR kosher?

Yes, PGPR is kosher. PGPR is a processing aid that is used to modify the texture and appearance of foods. It is derived from vegetable oil and does not contain any animal products.

Is PGPR gluten free?

Yes, PGPR is gluten free. It’s a processed ingredient that is made from soybean protein and can be used in a variety of products.

Is PGPR vegan?

Yes, polyglycerol polyricinoleate is vegan. It is a food additive used as a thickener in foods like ice cream and salad dressings. Polyglycerol polyricinoleate is made from castor oil, which is a byproduct of the castor oil plant and ricinoleic acid, which is derived from castor beans.

Conclusion

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate, E 476 is a powerful emulsifier that is added to foods and beverages to improve texture. It’s generally regarded as safe (GRAS) by the FDA. It’s often used in the production of chocolate along with other substances to improve the texture and mouthfeel of the final product.

Sophie Feng

Sophie Feng

Sophia Feng, Marketing Manager of Grade Chemical, specializes in writing food chemical article, custom chemical article, industry chemical blog.

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