What is Calcium Chloride E509? Uses, Safety, Side Effects

What is Calcium Chloride E509? Uses, Safety, Side Effects

What is calcium chloride

Table of Contents

What is calcium chloride in food?

Calcium chloride is an ionic compound with the chemical formula CaCl2. It is a colorless solid that is highly soluble in water. It is used as a firming and desiccating agent in food processing, as a herbicide, and in some types of antifreeze.

Calcium chloride is used in many food products as a preservative, to maintain the pH of a product, and as a firming agent. It is also used in the production of cheese, bread, and frozen foods. Calcium chloride can be found in canned vegetables, dry mixes for gravy and sauces, and processed meats like ham and bacon.

Calcium chloride is added to foods to enhance the calcium content of low-calcium processed foods and beverages. Calcium chloride can also be used as a firming agent in cheese and yogurt, as well as a coagulant in cheeses such as paneer. Calcium chloride is also used to remove moisture from meat products or other foods, such as frozen french fries.

Calcium chloride has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in certain foods, including bread, cereals, dairy products, dry mixes, frozen vegetables, and pie fillings.

What is calcium chloride used for?

Calcium chloride is a salt made from calcium and chlorine. It’s used to prevent ice from forming on sidewalks and roads, and it can also be used to melt snow and ice. It’s also used in agriculture as a fertilizer and soil conditioner.

Calcium chloride is a white crystalline solid that melts at 321°F (161°C). It’s highly soluble in water, with 5 pounds dissolved in 1 gallon of water. Calcium chloride can be produced by the reaction of hydrochloric acid with calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide:

CaCO3 + 2HCl → CaCl2 + H2O + CO2

In addition to its use as an antifreeze, it has many other industrial applications:

Agricultural Uses. Calcium chloride is used as a fertilizer because it dissolves readily in soil solutions, making nutrients more available for plants. The resulting increase in nutrient uptake by plants makes them grow faster than they would otherwise. In the wintertime, some farmers apply calcium chloride directly onto the leaves of crops such as lettuce or spinach just before harvest time to freeze them into submission so that they’ll be easier to handle when harvesting time comes around.

Water treatment use. Calcium chloride can be used to treat water for public supply or industrial use. It does this by increasing the number of dissolved minerals in the water, which improves its taste and makes it more suitable for drinking. The treated water can also be used for other purposes, such as irrigation or chemical processing.

Dry Ice Production use. calcium chloride is often used to make dry ice. This makes it easier to transport the product without compromising its quality or stability. It’s also cheaper than shipping regular ice because there’s no need to keep it frozen until arrival at your destination.

Calcium chloride is also used in metal casting processes as a fluxing agent to remove impurities from the metal before casting and to supply chlorine atoms needed to create zinc alloys.

How to make calcium chloride?

In order to manufacture commercial calcium chloride, three basic manufacturing processes must be followed.

Ammonia-soda process

CaCl2 is produced by converting CaCl2 into sodium carbonate byproducts. It is also called the Solvay process, which involves mixing sodium chloride (salt brine) with calcium carbonate (limestone) and using ammonia as a catalyst.

2 NaCl + CaCO3 = CaCl2 + Na2CO3

Process using limestone and hydrogen chloride

Make calcium carbonate react with hydrochloric acid (limestone).

2HCl + CaCO3 = CaCl2 + H2O + CO2

Process of natural brine production

A high concentration of CaCl2 precipitates sodium chloride and removes magnesium ions from naturally occurring brine (e.g., in salt lakes).


calcium chloride types

Calcium chloride can be divided into two types based on the amount of water in crystallization:

  1. Dihydrate: For de-icing and dust control, it is the most common type on the market.
  2. Anhydrous: It is usually used as a desiccant for gases and liquids. It can attract 6 times more water. CaCl2 + 6H2O → CaCl2 – 6H2O

It is also available in the form of six waters but is rarely seen in the market.

It is possible to distinguish food grade CaCl2 from industrial grade CaCl2 based on the application.

Other names· Calcium dichloride · Calcium (II) chloride · Anhydrous or dihydrate calcium chloride
CAS number· 10035-04-8 (dihydrate) · 10043-52-4 (anhydrous)
Chemical formula· CaCl2 (anhydrous) · CaCl2 · 2H2O (dihydrate) · CaCl2 · 6H2O (hexahydrate)
Molecular weight· 110.99 (anhydrous) · 147.02 (dihydrate)



Powder, round spherical, irregular granular, white or off-white, colorless cubic crystals.A hygroscopic and deliquescent substance (absorbs enough water to convert to liquid brine).


At 25°C, it dissolves in water easily with a solubility of 1 g/1.5 ml, and in ethanol with a solubility of 1 g/1.5 ml. and soluble ethanol. When it dissolves in water, calcium ions and chloride ions dissociate with the following equation. CaCl2 (aq) → Ca2+ (aq) + 2Cl- (aq)


  • These are the chemicals and components with which CaCl2 usually reacts:
  • Sodium carbonate: CaCl2 + Na2CO3 = CaCO3 + 2NaCl
  • Sodium bicarbonate: CaCl2 + 2NaHCO3 = CaCO3 + 2NaCl + H2O + CO2
  • Potassium carbonate: CaCl2 + K2CO3 = CaCO3 + 2KCl
  • Sodium phosphate: CaCl2 + Na3PO4 = Ca3(PO4)2 + NaCl
  • Sodium hydroxide: CaCl2 + 2NaOH = Ca(OH)2 + 2NaCl

Calcium chloride structure


What is the application of calcium chloride?

Food industry

Calcium chloride is used as a curing agent for canned vegetables. It also solidifies soy curd to form tofu and is used as an ingredient in culinary molecular gastronomy by reacting with sodium alginate to gelatinize the surface of vegetable and fruit juices to form small caviar-like balls. It is added as an electrolyte to sports drinks or some soft drinks including bottled water. Because calcium chloride itself has a very strong salty taste it can be used in place of salt in the preparation of pickled cucumbers without the effect of increasing the sodium content of the food. Calcium chloride’s property of lowering the freezing point is used in chocolate bars filled with caramel to retard the freezing of the caramel.

Bottled water  

For two primary reasons, bottled water companies add calcium chloride and other minerals and salts (such as magnesium chloride or magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate or potassium bicarbonate) to their water:

  • Create a refreshing, sweet, and salty taste in bland, distilled water.
  • Avoid excessive drinking after sweating or urinating in order to balance your electrolytes.


Milk is often enriched with calcium chloride when making cheese. By increasing the acidity of the milk and reacting with the proteins, it activates rennet enzymes, accelerates coagulation, and increases curd hardness.


Calcium chloride is added to mineral deficient beer brewing liquors because calcium ions are one of the most influential minerals in the brewing process, affecting the acidity of the wort and influencing the action of the yeast. Calcium chloride also gives a sweetness to the brewed beer. Other functions of calcium ions are listed below:

  • Lowering pH
  • Preserves enzymes in the mash
  • Avoiding mineral deficiencies and improving the hardness of beer water
  • Removal of phosphates and oxalates
  • Promotes yeast growth and flocculation
  • Uptake by growing yeast cells and binding to cell wall proteins.

As a whole, chloride ions increase alpha-amylase activity, yeast activity, beer taste, malt flavor and colloidal stability.


Pickling brine can be replaced with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride. It gives pickles a salty flavor without increasing sodium intake, helps cucumbers look nice, and speeds up fermentation during pickling. Moreover, it is environmentally friendly.


As a dehumidifier, anhydrous calcium chloride absorbs moisture from the surrounding environment, reducing the humidity within the sealed package and protecting the food during storage from moisture.

Fresh vegetables

Maintaining the freshness of fruits and vegetables after harvest by spraying or soaking them in a calcium chloride solution is an effective method that

  • Delaying the onset of physiological disorders
  • Respiratory tract strength is reduced
  • Pectin reacts with this compound to maintain firmness
  • Prevent vitamin C loss
  • Enhances nutritional calcium absorption
  • Apply calcium propionate and calcium ascorbate to apple and lemon surfaces to prevent browning
  • Saves food from spoilage

Fresh fruits and vegetables will therefore have a longer shelf life.

Low sodium food

Unlike table salt, CaCl2 is composed of calcium rather than sodium. In foods with low sodium requirements, it can be used.

Other food uses

  • To make tofu, it is used as a coagulant.
  • Sodium alginate is used for gelation and spherification.
  • The process of tenderizing meat is used.
  • Enhances protein stability and kneading resistance in wheat flour, as well as calcium fortification.
  • Supplementation of calcium in dairy products.
  • Ice cream and frozen desserts are manufactured with this refrigerant.
  • Maintains the firmness and color of canned fruits and vegetables, such as tomatoes.
  • During high-temperature cooking of potato chips and fries, it reduces the formation of acrylamide, which can cause cancer in animals at very high doses.


Snow melting and deicing with industrial-grade calcium chloride are common; it can also be used as construction antifreeze to speed up concrete hardening and increase mortar cold resistance; the aqueous solution can be used for oil drilling; ammonia’s adsorption and desorption properties can be used to cool. Its specific applications in the industrial field are as follows:

Ice melt

To improve the safety of drivers and pedestrians in winter, calcium chloride is commonly used for de-icing and melting snow on roads, highways, parking lots, marinas, and airports. In temperatures as low as -52 °C (near freezing point), it is easier to work with than sodium chloride.

These three main features make it a de-icer:

  • As an exothermic reaction, it releases a lot of heat when dissolved in water. Snow and ice melt faster due to this property.
  • Water coming into contact with the road again will have a lower freezing point because of the brine formed.
  • Moisture from the surrounding area accelerates the formation of this brine.


Cold weather concrete is strengthened by adding calcium chloride to speed up cement hydration, reduce setting time, and accelerate concrete strength.

Road dust control

By absorbing moisture from the air and adding gravel particles during construction, it becomes a dust control for gravel pavements (especially unpaved roads). By removing dust from the air, this property also makes humans safer.


A swimming pool’s calcium hardness can be adjusted with the use of CaCl2. The calcium hardness of pool water prevents freezing in the winter and prevents corrosion on heaters, ladders, and handrails caused by low calcium hardness.


Furthermore, it adjusts the sodium content of the soil in addition to providing calcium and chlorine to plants.

Is calcium chloride safe for humans?

Yes, as a food ingredient, calcium chloride acts as a multivalent chelating and curing agent and has been approved for use as a food additive by the European Union under the E code E509. as safe (abbreviated as GRAS). It is estimated that the daily intake of calcium chloride food additive is 160 to 345 mg per person. Its safety has also been recognized by other authorities, such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), as well as by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.


In the following food categories and maximum dosages, calcium chloride is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and used as a firming agent, nutritional supplement, pH control agent, anti-caking agent, humectant, etc.

  • bakery products, dairy analogs 0.3%
  • 22 % of the population consumes beverages
  • The percentage of cheese, processed fruits, and juices is 0.2%.
  • The percentage of coffee and tea is 0.32
  • 4 Condiments and dressings
  • Gravies and sauces 0.2
  • Jams and jellies 0.1%.
  • Meat products 0.25
  • Plant protein products 2.0
  • Processing of vegetables and juices of vegetables 0.4
  • The rest of the food groups make up 0.5%


In compliance with Commission Regulation (EC) No. 231/2012, calcium chloride (E509) is listed as a food additive as an “additive other than colors and sweeteners”.

Security reassessment for 2019

As food additives, calcium chloride (along with hydrochloric acid (E507), potassium chloride (E508), and magnesium chloride (E511) are not a safety concern, according to the European Food Safety Authority.

Approved uses

“Group 1” is the highest level of “Quantum Satisfaction” for this application. In addition, its individual use level is “unrestricted” in the following products: ():

  • A dehydrated milk product
  • Camembert
  • Fruits and vegetables canned or bottled
  • Other jams besides apple jam
  • Marmalades, jams, and jellies

UK Food Standards Agency

Category in “Others”

Food Standards Australia New Zealand

Australia and New Zealand have approved it with code 509.


Function Level: Food additives, curing agents.

Daily intake: The daily intake proposed in 1973 was “not specific”.

What are the benefits of calcium chloride?

Calcium chloride is a salt that comes from limestone and seawater. It’s used in many products such as ice cream, cheese, and toothpaste.

Calcium chloride has several benefits:

It can help protect plants against frost damage. This is done by increasing the soil’s ability to absorb water. This causes ice crystals to melt faster when temperatures drop below freezing. The result is plants are less likely to suffer from frost damage.

It can be used to thaw frozen pipes. Calcium chloride works well for thawing frozen pipes because it lowers the temperature at which water freezes (from 32°F down to 26°F). This means that if your pipes have frozen due to cold weather, you may be able to use calcium chloride to melt them so they won’t burst when they eventually thaw out on their own (which could take several days or weeks).

It helps keep food from sticking to the pan or grill when cooking outdoors. Calcium chloride is often added as an ingredient in commercial seasonings because it helps prevent food from sticking together while cooking over an open flame.

What are the side effects of calcium chloride?

Calcium chloride is a salt that is used as an ingredient in many products, including foods, drugs, and cosmetics. It’s also used to lower the freezing point of water to create ice.

Calcium chloride can cause serious side effects if ingested in large amounts. Calcium chloride may irritate your stomach, causing nausea and vomiting. Ingesting large amounts of calcium chloride can lead to dehydration and kidney failure.

Side effects of calcium chloride include:

  • Diarrhea.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Constipation.
  • Dry mouth.
  • Dizziness.
  • Irritability or mood changes.
  • Low blood pressure (hypotension).
  • Fever.

Calcium chloride vs Calcium gluconate

Calcium chloride and calcium gluconate are two forms of calcium. Calcium is an essential mineral that helps maintain the strength of your bones, nerves, muscles, and blood vessels.

Calcium chloride and calcium gluconate are both used to treat hypocalcemia (low levels of calcium in your blood), but they work differently.

Calcium chloride is a salt form of calcium that dissolves in water to produce calcium ions. It’s often used as a rapid-acting treatment for acute hypocalcemia (sudden onset). Calcium gluconate is a sugar-based compound that dissolves slowly and provides sustained release of calcium over time. It’s often used as longer-term maintenance therapy for chronic hypocalcemia.

The primary difference between the two is that calcium chloride can be used as a fertilizer, but this isn’t true for calcium gluconate. Calcium chloride is also commonly used as an ice melter in the winter because it’s more effective than salt at bringing water’s freezing point down.  

It’s important to note that neither form of calcium can be taken by mouth without being diluted first; when taken undiluted, they can cause severe stomach cramps and vomiting.

Calcium chloride vs Anhydrous calcium chloride

Calcium chloride and anhydrous calcium chloride are two different chemical compounds. Both of these chemicals are used as deicers, but they differ in their uses and properties.

Calcium chloride is a salt that contains calcium and chlorine atoms. This compound has several uses in the food industry, such as in dairy products and bread. Calcium chloride is sometimes added to drinking water to prevent dehydration during exercise. This compound is also used in concrete mixes and asphalt mixtures to reduce freeze-thaw damage during cold weather conditions.

Anhydrous calcium chloride (ACD) is similar to calcium chloride, but it doesn’t contain any water molecules. ACD is made by removing all of the water from this compound through distillation or evaporation processes. ACD can be used as a deicer on driveways and roads because it melts ice quickly and reduces the formation of snow on sidewalks and driveways during the winter months.

Is calcium chloride soluble in water?

Calcium chloride is soluble in water. Calcium chloride is a compound of calcium and chlorine, with the chemical formula CaCl2. It is a salt formed by the reaction between calcium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid.

Calcium chloride is an ionic crystal, meaning that it dissolves in water to form ions, or charged particles. Calcium chloride dissolves completely in water because it breaks down to form ions, which are small enough to fit into the spaces between water molecules.

The solubility of calcium chloride in water depends on temperature and pressure. As temperature increases and pressure decreases, more calcium chloride dissolves in water.

Where to buy calcium chloride?

Calcium chloride can be found in some supermarkets, hardware stores, and home improvement stores. It is usually sold in the form of crystals or powder.

If you cannot find calcium chloride in your local store, you can buy it online from Amazon or other online retailers.

There are many brands of calcium chloride available on the market today. Some brands include:

– Miracle-Gro Ice Melt (fertilizer)

– Snow Magic Ice Melter (fertilizer)

– Ropel Calcium Chloride (fertilizer)

Frequently Asked Questions

Is calcium chloride vegan?

Calcium chloride is not vegan because it is derived from the mineral halite, a compound of sodium, chlorine, and water. Halite is mined from the earth, which involves removing layers of soil, rock and vegetation that are composed of living organisms.

Is calcium chloride acid or base?

Calcium chloride is a weak base. Calcium chloride is the salt of calcium and chlorine, with a chemical formula of CaCl. It has a melting point of -78 degrees Celsius and a boiling point of 119 degrees Celsius, and it is soluble in water. Calcium chloride is most often used as an ice-melting agent or de-icing agent, but it also has many other uses in industry.

Is calcium chloride polar?

Yes, calcium chloride is polar. Specifically, it has a dipole moment of 0.078 D.

Is calcium chloride natural?

Calcium chloride is naturally formed when sea water evaporates, leaving behind salt crystals. These crystals are then heated until they become molten and can be separated from other minerals.

Is calcium chloride gluten free?

Yes, It’s considered gluten-free because it does not contain any gluten or wheat protein. However, some companies may use other additives in the manufacturing process that do contain gluten.

Is calcium chloride dairy free?

Calcium chloride is a chemical that is used to increase the level of calcium in milk. It is not dairy-free, so if you are looking for a product that doesn’t contain any dairy, you should avoid calcium chloride.


If you are planning to use Calcium Chloride E509 for your beverages, you may want to first find out what it is. You can also check with your state or federal regulatory agencies to learn more about the product, especially if you are in a country where it is not permitted.

Keep in mind that E numbers are used for food additive purposes and do not necessarily mean that the substance itself is safe for consumption. Remember to always consult a professional before using any artificial substance in your beverages.

If you have any questions about this additives? please let us know in the below comments

Sophie Feng

Sophie Feng

Sophie Feng is the author of gradechemical.com, she is the co-founder of the grade chemical network. She has been in grade chemical company since 2017, with a working knowledge of food chemical .

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