What is Saccharin E954? Uses, Types, Safe, Side effects

What is Saccharin E954? Uses, Types, Safe, Side effects


Table of Contents

Saccharin is a white colorless crystalline powder, which has slightly sweet to be almost odorless. This additive is widely used in the food industry primarily because its main component or glycoside is derived from sugar (sucrose)

Saccharin is a sweet substance also known as E954. This article provides you with all the relevant information about this popular artificial sweetener and its uses.

What is saccharin?


Saccharin is a calorie-free sweetener commonly used as a sugar substitute in processed foods. It’s been around since the late 1800s when it was discovered by accident.

Drs. Constantin Fahlberg and Ira Remsen were working on an experiment when they discovered saccharin. Their findings were published in 1879, but they didn’t do anything with the discovery until 1884 when they began selling saccharin commercially. In 1894, it was approved by the U.S. FDA as a food additive.

Saccharin is still widely used today as a low-calorie sweetener in diet sodas and other products that have been labeled “sugar-free.” It’s also available in packages that are labeled “Splenda” or “sweet n low” for home use or for cooking purposes.

What is saccharin used for?


Saccharin is an artificial sweetener. It’s used in place of sugar to sweeten food and drink.

It was discovered by accident in 1879 by chemist Constantine Fahlberg. He was working on coal tar derivatives when he noticed the sweet taste of one of them. Saccharin can be produced from methyl anthranilate, which is found in many common foods including radishes, cherries, and blackberries.

Saccharin is 300 times sweeter than table sugar (sucrose) so only very small amounts are needed to give a sweet taste.

Saccharin has been used as a low-calorie alternative to sugar since before 1900; during World War I it was sold in soldiers’ rations as an alternative to sugar which was scarce at that time because of blockades by Germany on imports of cane sugar into Britain and France.

In 1911 saccharin was banned in the United States due to fears about its safety. This ban remained until Congress lifted it in 2000 after research showed no link between saccharin and cancer development or reproductive abnormalities.

What is saccharin made from?


It is made from coal tar derivatives, which are chemicals formed during the process of making coal into coke for steel production.

Saccharin was discovered in 1878 by Constantin Fahlberg, a German chemist working at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. Fahlberg noticed that his fingers had become stained after working with coal tar and wondered if there might be a way to use this as an artificial sweetener. He developed a crystalline powder that he named saccharin, which was found to be 300 times sweeter than sucrose (table sugar).

Whare are the types of saccharin?


type of saccharin-1050210

This sweetener has three problems:

  1. Taste of bitterness
  2. In light of its association with bladder cancer in the 1970s (even though authorities have demonstrated that there is no such connection in 2000), its use is limited. The ADI is 15 milligrams per kilogram body weight per day (mg/kg bw/d).
  3. Manufacturing processes cause environmental pollution

Let’s explore this ingredient in more detail. In food and toothpaste, saccharin is commonly referred to as sodium saccharin.

Saccharin Types


There are two types of saccharin: water insoluble and soluble. Sodium saccharin is the most common saccharin commercially available in the market, along with calcium saccharin and potassium saccharin.



A less common food additive, o-benzoyl sulfonimide is the acid form of saccharin with the molecular formula C7H5O3NS, molecular weight 183.18, and melting point 226 to 230 degrees Celsius.

Sodium saccharin


It is available in anhydrous and dihydrated forms, as well as in granular, powder, and liquid forms. Its granular form is usually used to dissolve it, and pharmaceuticals and dry mixes typically use its powder form.

Other namesSodium saccharine, Benzoic sulfimide, sodium ortho-sulphobenzimide, Saccharin sodium
CAS number128-44-9
Chemical formulaA mixture of C7H4NNaO3S2H2O (dihydrate with 15% moisture) and C7H4NNaO3S2H2O (anhydrous with 6% moisture) are present.
Molecular weight241.19 (dihydrate), 223.19 (anhydrous)



It is freely soluble in water and sparingly soluble in ethanol. The solution dissociates sodium ions and saccharin anions.



Sucrose (table sugar) has a sweetness 300 times higher than honey. When its concentration exceeds 0.03%, it leaves an unpleasant bitter and mouth feeling of metallic aftertaste. In beverages and beverage bases, glycine can mask saccharin’s bitter aftertaste.



Reduces the slight bitter metallic aftertaste when combined with other sweeteners. In some cases, it is blended with aspartame or cyclamate.




Carboxylic sulfonimide is the functional group.

Calcium saccharin


Molecular weight 467.48, chemical formula C14H8CaN2O6S2312H2O. Sodium saccharin is sometimes substituted with it to reduce sodium intake.

Potassium saccharin


The chemical formula is C7H4KNO3SH2O, and the Molecular weight is 239.77. It is rarely used as a food ingredient.

How is saccharin made of?


A variety of synthetic routes can be used to make saccharin. The manufacturing process is divided into two main steps. In its initial form, Remsen-Fahlberg synthesized toluene by chlorosulfonic acid, one of the oldest methods since its discovery. As a starting material, phthalic anhydride or methyl anthranilate can be used.

Remsen‐Fahlberg process



In this reaction, chlorosulfonic acid is used to convert toluene into ortho- and para-toluenesulfonyl chloride. As a result, the corresponding toluene sulfonamide is produced.

Sulfonyl chloride is used to separate the ortho-toluene sulfonamide, which then goes on to be oxidized into anthranilic acid, which is then heated and cyclized into saccharin.

Sodium saccharin is then obtained by reacting with NaHCO3.

The process of methyl anthranilate or phthalic anhydride


Here is a brief description of the methyl anthranilate process:


Diazotization: form 2-carbomethoxybenzene-diazonium chloride by reacting methyl anthranilate with sodium sulfite. To produce 2-carbomethoxybenzene sulphonyl chloride, sulfonation and oxidation are carried out.

Using ammonia to react with sulfonyl chloride and subsequently acidifying it, the sulfonyl chloride is amidated to yield insoluble saccharin.

The sodium salt is then produced through the reaction with sodium hydroxide.

What’s the application of saccharin?


Due to its low cost, synergy with other sweeteners, and stable properties, saccharin has been used for more than 100 years to reduce calories and replace sugar with other sweeteners. Baby food cannot contain it, but toothpaste does.



Sugar-free and low-calorie products typically contain this ingredient:

  • Soft drinks
  • Tabletop sweeteners (found in restaurants and airlines)
  • Baked goods
  • In the mouth, sugar can slowly dissolve in chewing gum.
  • Dry & canned fruit
  • Pickles
  • Candy
  • Coffee
  • Dessert toppings, yogurt, ice cream, desserts, and salad dressings
  • Jam, preserves, marmalade
  • Vitamin tablets

Tabletop sweeteners


The drug is available as tablets and is made from sodium bicarbonate, sodium saccharin, silicon dioxide, and modified cellulose gum.

Carbonated soft drinks


Since saccharin dissolves rapidly in water, it was widely used to sweeten beverages in the past. Despite this, other low-calorie sweeteners, such as aspartame, acesulfame potassium, sucralose, and neotame, are becoming more accessible to manufacturers and consumers, making saccharin less popular.


Coca-Cola uses saccharin in its drinks to replace sugar without adding calories.

In 1982, it was the first non-caloric sweetener used in Diet Coke and was responsible for its success.

In Fanta-Zero and Lilt, we can find this ingredient.


There are almost no Pepsico beverages that contain saccharin, except Diet Mountain Dew and it isn’t on their list of non-caloric sweeteners, which includes aspartame, sucralose, and acesulfame K.



Sweetening agents such as saccharin are commonly used in personal care products such as toothpaste and mouthwashes.

Crest products contain this additive, which provides better taste, and better stability, and does not cause cavities.

Additionally, it is used in some Colgate toothpaste as a flavor/sweetener to enhance the taste of fluoride and abrasives.

Other applications


Aside from pharmaceutical applications, it is also used in animal feed, pesticides, and electroplating.

What are the benefits of saccharin?

Saccharin is generally beneficial to health in the following ways:
  • Suitable for diabetics because it has a zero glycemic index
  • Calorie-free
  • Dental cavities can be reduced
  • Controlling weight

Good for diabetics


Mostly excreted unchanged in the urine, it has no effect on blood sugar levels (zero glycemic indexes). As a result, diabetics can use it safely and effectively.

No calorie


This sweetener has no calories and is non-carbohydrate.

Tooth friendly


For children, sugar-free gum & candy can use to reduce dental cavities.

Weight management


Sweeteners with low calories (e.g. aspartame, saccharin, sucralose) provide sweetness with virtually no calories.

Is saccharin safe to eat for the body?


Yes, saccharin is safe for human consumption. It does not cause cancer or other adverse effects, even at high doses. In fact, it was first approved by the U.S FDA in 1977. The FDA requires that products containing saccharin carry a warning label stating that this substance has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals; however, there are no human studies supporting this claim.



Saccharin and its salts are safe to use as sweeteners in the following foods:

  • There should be no more than 12 mg per fluid ounce of beverages, fruit juice drinks, bases, and mixes.
  • To substitute sugar for cooking or table use, do do not exceed 20 mg per teaspoon of sugar sweetening equivalent.
  • No more than 30 mg per serving of processed foods.

Also, it can enhance the flavor of flavor chips in nonstandard bakery products and reduce bulk in chewable vitamin & mineral tablets.



In the early 1970s, saccharin consumption was linked to bladder cancer in laboratory rats, leading to warning labels on saccharin-containing products.

As a result of the conclusion that the mechanisms of bladder cancers observed in rats were not relevant to humans, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified saccharin and its salts as “not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3)” in 1999.

As of May 2000, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) removed saccharin from its list of “reasonably anticipated human carcinogens.”

On December 21, 2000, President Clinton signed the SWEETEST Act which removed the warning label from all products containing saccharin.



In Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012, saccharin (E954i), sodium saccharin (E954ii), calcium saccharin (E954iii), and potassium saccharin (E954iv) are listed as authorized food additives.

Approved uses


These are some of its uses in energy-reduced or/and sugar-free foods:

  • Fruits and vegetables in cans or bottles
  • Marmalades, jams, and jellies
  • Chocolate products and cocoa
  • Sauces
  • Breakfast cereals
  • Powders/liquids/tablets for tabletop sweetening
  • Fish and fishery products that have been processed

Health Canada


As a result of saccharin’s carcinogenicity in laboratory rats, its food use has been restricted in Canada for a long time.

Saccharin would be another artificial sweetener choice available to consumers in the presence of many other artificial sweeteners.

The following foods can be sweetened with saccharin and its salts as of April 24, 2014:

  • Fresheners for the breath
  • Fruits that are not standardized
  • Gum
  • Desserts that are not standardized
  • Mixes and toppings
  • Liquors that are not standardized
  • Drinks without standardized carbonation and unstandardized fruit spreads

Saccharin and its salts cannot exceed 0.25% except in table-top sweeteners.



Classification: sweetener, food additive.

An ADI of 0-5 mg/kg body weight was set in 1993.



In the “Sweeteners” category



Australia and New Zealand have approved it with code 954 as an ingredient.

How much saccharin is safe?


Saccharin is safe when consumed at recommended levels according to FDA recommendations:

Adults can consume up to 9 milligrams per day (mg/day) without any adverse effects being observed; children should not consume more than 4 mg/day.

In 1977, the FDA removed saccharin from its list of carcinogenic substances after several studies failed to show any link between saccharin and bladder cancer. However, it did note that large doses could cause an increase in urinary tract tumors in rats.

Saccharin was banned by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1977 as a potential human carcinogen. However, many years later, this ban was lifted when no link between saccharin and bladder cancer was found in studies conducted during the 1980s and 1990s.

What is saccharin found in?


Saccharin is an artificial sweetener. It is found in a number of products, including candies, cookies, beverages, and ice cream. Saccharin has a bitter aftertaste that some people find unpleasant.

It is also known as E954, Sweet’N Low, or Sugar Twin.

Saccharin was discovered in 1879 by Constantine Fahlberg and Charles M. William while they were working at John Pierce Laboratories (now part of Pfizer). It was first used as an artificial sweetener in 1884 in a product called “Gumdrop” candy by Ira Remsen, who later became the president of Johns Hopkins University. It was approved for use as a food additive by the U.S. FDA in 1950.

Why saccharin is bad for you?


Saccharin is used in some products marketed to people who want to lose weight because it’s calorie-free, but the sweetener can cause some health problems. Here are three reasons you should avoid saccharin:

1. It causes bladder cancer

A study published by researchers at Harvard Medical School found that people who consumed more than 20 mg/day of saccharin had a higher risk of bladder cancer compared to those who consumed less than 1.5 mg/day. This effect was seen for all types of bladder cancers studied, including those that were non-muscle invasive (a type of cancer that doesn’t spread beyond the lining of the bladder).

2. It causes high blood pressure

Researchers have found a link between saccharin consumption and high blood pressure in rats, but no human studies have been conducted yet. However, it’s important to note that these results were obtained using doses much greater than what humans would consume on a regular basis. As long as you’re not consuming tons of artificially sweetened foods every day, your risk for high blood pressure is probably low or nonexistent.

3. It may increase your risk of obesity

Researchers at Yale University found that drinking diet soda increased participants’ waist circumference over time, even after adjusting for other factors like exercise level, calorie intake, and BMI (body mass index). This suggests that artificial sweeteners might actually have an impact on our metabolism and hormones that affect weight gain.

Which is better saccharin or sucralose?


The primary differences between these two artificial sweeteners are the way they are made and their relative sweetness. Both saccharin and sucralose are about 300 times sweeter than regular sugar.

Sucralose is made from sugar and chlorine, according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It’s a white powder that looks a lot like real sugar in terms of taste, texture, and appearance. Sucralose can be used in cooking, baking, and as an ingredient in other foods.

Saccharin is made from coal tar, which sounds pretty gross, but it’s actually one of the oldest artificial sweeteners on the market. It can be found in diet soft drinks such as Coca-Cola Zero Sugar and Pepsi Max Zero Calorie along with many other products including some chewing gums like Trident White Ice Spearmint Sugar-Free Gum – 25 Pieces per Packet (Pack of 2).

Both of these sweeteners have been around for a long time and have been proven safe by numerous studies over time as well as by the FDA itself which has approved both for use in food products since 2001.”

Which is worse saccharin or aspartame?


Saccharin is an artificial sweetener that has been on the market for over 100 years. It was originally marketed under the brand name Sweet’N Low. Saccharin is about 300 times sweeter than table sugar and does not promote tooth decay like sugar can.

Aspartame, also known as NutraSweet and Equal, was developed in the 1960s by G.D. Searle & Company. It’s approximately 200 times sweeter than table sugar, which makes it a popular choice among diabetics and those on low-carbohydrate diets.

Both artificial sweeteners are calorie-free, but they still contain some carbohydrates and should be used sparingly by those trying to lose weight.

Where to buy saccharin?


It is easy to buy saccharin online. In fact, you can even buy it at your local supermarket. The product is available in a variety of forms, including tablets and packets.

The following are some of the places where you can buy saccharin:

Supermarkets – You will find saccharin in most supermarkets across the world. The product is usually sold in tablet or packet form or as a liquid. It is also available in bulk quantities for use by large companies that produce food products that contain sugar substitutes.

Department stores – Like supermarkets, department stores stock saccharin tablets and packets as well as liquid versions of this sweetener. In addition to these forms, you may also find other kinds of sugar substitutes such as Stevia or Splenda at these shops.

Health food stores – Health food stores often have more choices for sugar substitute products than grocery stores do — including some that aren’t available at mainstream retailers like Whole Foods or Target. For example, you might find stevia leaf extract in a health food store or online retailer such as Amazon, but not in a typical grocery store.

Grade Chemical – Grade Chemical is one reliable food additives supplier in China. if you want to buy a large quantity of saccharin, you can directly purchase from them.

Frequently asked questions


How much sweeter is saccharin than sugar?


Saccharin is about 300 to 500 times sweeter than table sugar. That means you can use less saccharin, and you’ll still get a sweet taste. It also means that like any other artificial sweetener, saccharin isn’t metabolized by your body in the same way as natural sugars, so it won’t raise your blood glucose level or contribute calories.

Who discovered saccharin?


Saccharin was discovered by Constantine Fahlberg and Ira Remsen. They were working in a laboratory at Johns Hopkins University in 1879. The two chemists were trying to come up with an artificial sweetener for diabetics who could not use sugar. They knew that saccharin was 300 times sweeter than sugar, but they didn’t know its exact chemical structure of it.

Is saccharin healthy?


Some people think that saccharin is unhealthy because it’s not found naturally in food or the human body. But many people also argue that this doesn’t mean saccharin isn’t healthy—it just means it doesn’t have any nutritional value. They point out that other things we consume—for example, water—don’t have any nutritional value either, but are still considered healthy.

Why is saccharin banned?


In the early 1900s, saccharin was known as a non-caloric artificial sweetener. It was used in products such as chewing gum, diet sodas, and other low-calorie foods. In 1977, saccharin was banned by the FDA because of concerns that it caused bladder cancer in rats and mice. However, when tested on humans, no link between saccharin consumption and bladder cancer could be found.

How is saccharin manufactured?


Saccharin is manufactured through the oxidation of saccharin in sulfuric acid. First, saccharin is treated with sulfuric acid. The reaction between the two produces a chemical compound known as saccharin sulfate (C7H5N(O)S). This is then treated with nitric acid to produce saccharin nitrate (C7H5N(O)NO3). After that, it’s treated with hydrochloric acid to produce saccharin hydrochloride (C7H5N(O)Cl). Finally, the process ends with heating the product to remove any traces of water or other impurities.

How saccharin is made?


Saccharin is a synthetic sweetener made from coal tar. It is about 300 times sweeter than sugar, which means you only need very small amounts to sweeten foods. It also has no calories, which makes it popular with people trying to lose weight.

In 1879, chemists Constantin Fahlberg and Ira Remsen were working on coal tar derivatives when they accidentally discovered saccharin. At the time, both men were working for Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. They submitted their findings to the Journal of the American Chemical Society in 1880.

Is saccharin keto?


Yes, It is keto friendly since it is not a carbohydrate, so it does not affect blood sugar levels.

Is saccharin Halal and Kosher?


Saccharin is a non-caloric sweetener that has been used since 1879. It is considered Halal, but it is not Kosher.

The kosher symbol is a simple letter “U,” and it signifies that the product has been certified as kosher by the appropriate authority. The halal symbol is a crescent moon and star, which indicates that the food was prepared according to Islamic law.

Is saccharin gluten-free?


Yes, Saccharin is used as a sweetener in many food products and drinks. It is used to replace sugar because it has no calories and is 200-700 times sweeter than sugar. It can be found in foods labeled as “sugar-free,” “diet,” or “zero.”

Is saccharin Vegan?


Saccharin is not vegan, as it is made from a chemical called benzoic sulfimide. However, there is a vegan version of saccharin that uses all-natural ingredients.

Final Words:


In conclusion, the use of saccharin today is widely accepted due to a wide variety of its applications. It is used in various foods and drinks such as chewing gums, jelly beans, diet soda, and so forth. As a result, the presence of saccharin in our food comes with little worry about its side effects on the users. However, it is important to remember that improper consumption of a large amount of saccharin over a longer period can lead to negative effects on health. In addition to this always consult your doctor before consuming saccharin.

if you have any queries or doubts about this chemical feel free to raise them in the comments section below.

Sophie Feng

Sophie Feng

Sophie Feng is the author of gradechemical.com, she is the co-founder of the grade chemical network. She has been in grade chemical company since 2017, with a working knowledge of food chemical .

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