What Is Sucralose E955? Uses, Types, Safe, Side Effects

What Is Sucralose E955? Uses, Types, Safe, Side Effects

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Table of Contents

Sucralose is one of six non-nutritive sweeteners on the market. It’s made from real sugar, but it’s not the same as regular sugar. But most importantly, sucralose is around 600 times sweeter than table sugar and therefore can be used in very small amounts. For this reason, Sucralose (E955) is a popular sweetener for the food and beverage industry. Here we look at how it’s made, its uses and safety considerations.

What is sucralose?

 

Sucralose is an artificial sweetener that has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since 1998. It’s also known by the brand name Splenda, which is owned by McNeil Nutritionals, a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson.

Sucralose is 600 times sweeter than sugar, so it’s used in tiny amounts to give products like diet soda their sweetness. It can also be used in cooking and baking, but it’s not considered safe for high-heat applications like frying or baking at temperatures above 400 degrees Fahrenheit (204 Celsius).

Sucralose is made from sugar (usually sucrose), but through a complex process involving three different molecules: chlorine, hydrogen and carbon. These three atoms are bonded together into what’s known as a chlorocarbon structure — hence the name sucralose.

What is sucralose used for?

 

Sucralose, also known as Splenda, is an artificial sweetener made from sugar. Most people know sucralose best for its use in the tabletop sweetener Splenda and in reduced-calorie foods, drinks and other products.

Sucralose is used to replace sugar in many foods, because it’s 600 to 1,000 times sweeter than regular sugar without adding calories. It’s also used in some medications, such as chewable vitamins and cough drops. Sucralose has been on the market since 1999 and is one of the most popular artificial sweeteners available today.

Sucralose is mainly used for sweetening foods and drinks, but it’s not recommended for cooking or baking due to its stability issues at high temperatures. You would need much more than usual to get an equivalent amount of sweetness from sucralose when cooking or baking foods that require higher amounts of heat such as cakes or cookies.

What is sucralose made of?

 

Sucralose is a synthetic compound, meaning it’s not found naturally in nature and has been created in a lab. However, it’s not made from artificial ingredients like many other artificial sweeteners. In fact, it’s made of two natural ingredients: sugar and chlorine!

Sucralose is made by chlorinating sugar. The chlorination process replaces three of the hydroxyl groups in sugar with chlorine atoms. These chlorine atoms make sucralose an organochlorine compound, which is a type of chemical compound containing carbon and chlorine.

Sucralose is made by chemically modifying sucrose (table sugar). The result is a non-caloric sweetener that can be used in a wide variety of foods and beverages. In fact, it’s found in more than 4,000 products worldwide — including diet sodas, gum and baked goods.

How much sucralose is safe?

 
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There have been no reports of serious side effects from sucralose. The maximum acceptable daily intake (ADI) of sucralose is 5 mg per kg of body weight per day. This means that if you weigh 70 kg, you can safely consume 350 mg of sucralose per day.

Sucralose does not cause tooth decay, so it’s safe for use with children and teenagers who are still developing their teeth and gums.

It’s also safe for pregnant women and nursing mothers because it doesn’t get into breast milk or harm your baby.

Where does sucralose come from?

 

Sucralose is made from sugar by a process of chlorination, which replaces three hydrogen-oxygen groups on the sugar molecule with three chlorine atoms. The resulting product is about 600 times sweeter than sugar, so only very small quantities are needed to sweeten foods and beverages.

Sucralose is produced in two steps: sugar is treated with trichloroethylene (TCE), an industrial solvent, to produce the chlorinated sucrose intermediate, which then goes through a multi-step chemical process that converts it into sucralose.

What are sucralose benefits?

 

Sucralose is one of the most popular artificial sweeteners on the market today, which is why it’s found in so many products from soft drinks to yogurt. But what are the real benefits of sucralose? Here are a few of the top reasons why this sweetener is so popular:

1. Low-Calorie Sweetener

Sucralose is about 600 times sweeter than table sugar, so you only need a small amount to sweeten your food. This makes it ideal for people who have diabetes or are watching their weight because it contains no calories. You’ll still need to watch how much of an effect other ingredients have on your diet, such as fat and carbohydrates, but at least you won’t be adding any empty calories in the form of sucralose!

2. No Aftertaste

It’s common for some artificial sweeteners to leave a bad aftertaste in your mouth after eating them. This doesn’t happen with sucralose because it has no bitter aftertaste like some other artificial sweeteners do.

3. Digestive Health Benefits

Sucralose isn’t digested by humans or animals; it passes through our bodies unchanged and ends up getting excreted in the feces.  This is particularly interesting to me because it highlights the difference between artificial sweeteners and natural sugars。

What are the types of Sucralose in the market?

 

A raw material (in bulk) is usually sold as pure powder and granular OR as a finished product available in supermarkets that can be used directly (conveniently) as a solid (such as Splenda).

1. Pure sucralose

 

There are two forms of this product: powder and granular. Currently, China is the world’s largest manufacturer and exporter, with around 2,000MT exported to the United States in 2019.

2. Splenda

 

There are several types of Splenda on the market, which is a brand of the finished product of sucralose. There are small amounts of dextrose and maltodextrin in its no-calorie packet.

3. Liquid sucralose

 

It is a clear and colorless liquid that is commonly sold in the market, commonly containing 25% sucralose. It may also contain very few preservatives (such as potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate), acidulants (such as citric acid, succinic acid), etc.

Compared to the pure form, the liquid form is more stable and can extend shelf life. General foods should be used in PH levels below 7, while bakery products should be used in PH levels below 8.

How is sucralose made of?

 

In order to produce sucrose, three hydroxyl groups on the sugar molecule are substituted with three chlorine atoms.

The following is a list of the common synthesis methods and three production steps from the manufacturer, JK Sucralose Inc:

  • An esterification reaction occurs when sucrose combines with acetic acid and diethyl ether
  •  azodicarboxylate to produce Sucrose-6-Acetate. 
  • In DMF, phosphorous pentachloride reacts with sucrose-6-Acetate to produce chlorine.
  • A methanol solution containing KOH is used to deacetylate the product obtained in step 2.

Sucralose specification

 

Other Names

 
  • 4,1′,6′-Trichlorogalactosucrose
  • 1,6-Dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-β-D-fructofuranosyl-4-chloro-4-deoxy-α-D-galactopyranoside

CAS Number

 

56038-13-2

Chemical Formula

 

C12H19Cl3O8

Molecular Weight

 

397.64

Properties

 

Appearance

 

This powder or granule is white to off-white in color. It is resistant to light, heat,, and pH changes.

Sweetness

 

The taste is similar to sucrose, without the bitter aftertaste of saccharin and acesulfame K, which are other no-calorie sweeteners.

Aspartame and acesulfame k are 3 times sweeter than their 3% solution, while sodium saccharin (E954) is 2 times sweeter than their 3% solution.

Solubility

 

The compound is freely soluble in water, methanol, and ethanol, and slightly soluble in ethyl acetate.

Structure

 

sucralose-chemical-structure-300x170-3324282-1419148

What is the application of sucralose?

 

Sweeteners like sucrose are commonly used in foods and beverages to reduce sugar and calories without compromising taste, such as soft drinks, powdered drink mixes, tabletop sweeteners, baking, yogurt, ice cream, and pharmaceuticals.

Beverage

 

There are many beverages that use sucrose, including carbonated beverages, fruit juices, plant-based protein drinks, energy drinks, coffee drinks, and alcoholic drinks.

In general, beverages are usually sweetened with 8% to 10% sucrose. Sucralose is required only in amounts of 0.013% to 0.016% to achieve the same sweetness. In other words, 130 to 160g of sucralose is enough for the production of 1000 kg of beverage.

Coca-Cola

 

The purpose of sucrose in carbonated drinks is to provide a sweet taste with zero calories. This ingredient can be found in Coca-Cola products such as DASANI Flavors, Diet Coke with SPLENDA®, and POWERADE Zero. The combination of aspartame and acesulfame potassium in Coke Zero does not contain it.

Pepsico

 

It is widely used in Pepsi products, such as Diet Pepsi, Pepsi Zero Sugar, Protein Shake, and Whey Protein Powder.

Redbull

 

In energy drinks, such as Redbull, sucralose acts as a sugar substitute. Vitamins and other functional ingredients in sports nutrition supplements are masked by its bitterness.

Other beverages

 

In the production of soy milk, sucrose can be sterilized at 120°C, which masks the beany smell and improves the taste. Aside from alcoholic beverages, sucrose is also suitable for use in sweetening. As an example, in fruit wine, little of it (or combined with sucrose) can improve the flavor, mask the acidity, and make the wine taste mellow, sweet, and with no odor.

Baking

 

Baking and cooking can be done with sucralose, unlike aspartame.

Candy

 

A sugar-free candy contains fewer carbs & calories than traditional candy sweetened with sugar. It is common to use artificial sweeteners (aspartame, acek, and sucralose) and sugar alcohols (erythritol, maltitol, and sorbitol) in this manner.

Coffee

 

By reducing the sugar content in coffee products, sucralose decreases energy intake. The sweetener can be used on its own or in combination with sucrose, fructose, or high-fructose corn syrup. Sucralose is found in coffee products from many well-known international companies, such as Nestle and Kraft.

Aspartame is being used less and less in coffee. To improve the taste of coffee, acesulfame K is also blended with other sweeteners.

There is less use of other high-intensity sweeteners in this field, such as stevia, cyclamate, and sodium saccharin.

Yogurt

 

Yogurt is made from sucrose, which cannot be used by lactic acid bacteria and yeast. It can be combined with sucralose in order to reduce the amount of sucrose, thereby saving manufacturers energy and costs, as well as preventing more sucrose being metabolized by bacteria and yeast to produce an unpleasant taste.

As a result, yogurt products are improved in taste, and acidity is neutralized.

Protein Powder

 

You may find sucralose in your protein powder (e.g. whey protein and protein shake). Most protein powders can be difficult to consume if they do not contain sweeteners or flavors. To impart a sweet state to your protein powder while providing free calories for your workout, sucrose is used to mask the bitterness naturally derived from the plant.

Others

 

Sucralose can also be used as a sweetener in personal care products, such as toothpaste and mouthwash since it does not cause cavities. Syrups, lozenges, and chewable tablets can use to mask bitterness in pharmaceuticals.

Is sucralose safe to eat for the body?

 

Yes, Sucralose is a non-caloric artificial sweetener that has been used in a wide variety of food products since about 1999. It is 600 times sweeter than sugar and has no calories.

Sucralose is made from sucrose, which is common table sugar. To make sucralose, the molecule is chemically modified so it can no longer be broken down by the body. It passes through the digestive system and leaves very little waste behind.

FDA

 

In food generally allowed for direct addition to human consumption, it can be used as a sweetener.

EFSA

 

Sucralose (E955) is an authorised food additive listed in Regulation (EU) No 231/2012 under the category of “sweetener”.

Authorised Uses And Use Levels

 

There are many applications where it is approved for use, some of which are listed below:

  • Flavored fermented milk products
  • Jams jellies and marmalades
  • Flavoured drinks
  • Confectionery
  • Cocoa and chocolate products
  • Chewing gum
  • Sauces
  • Breakfast cereals
  • Table-top sweeteners in liquid/powder/tablets form
  • Alcoholic drinks

UK Food Standards Agency

 

Categorized in “Sweeteners”

Food Standards Australia New Zealand

 

Code number 955 is used in Australia and New Zealand.

JECFA

 
Classification: food additives, sweeteners.

A daily intake of 15 mg/kg body weight was established in 1990 as the acceptable daily intake.

Is sucralose bad for your health?

 
While artificial sweeteners have been approved safe by authorities, they remain one of the most controversial food additives. Therefore, sucralose is generally regarded as safe, but consumers always worry about what its side effects might be.

Among the potential adverse effects, cancer is the most discussed.

  • Cancer
  • Diarrhea
  • Gut gas
  • Chloride
  • Weight gain
  • Headaches
  • Stomach pain
  • Allergy

Let’s examine the most talked-about possible side effects one by one and see if we can figure it out with the help of authority sources.

Does sucralose cause cancer?

 

There is no evidence that sucralose can cause cancer. In fact, studies show that sucralose is generally safe for human consumption.

Sucralose is a sugar substitute that is used in many foods and drinks to replace sugar or other sweeteners such as high fructose corn syrup. It does not promote tooth decay, does not affect blood sugar levels, and does not contribute to weight gain or obesity.

Sucralose was approved by the FDA in 1999. It has been tested for more than 30 years and has been found to be safe for consumption by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The EFSA reviewed all available evidence from animal, epidemiological, clinical and other sources before concluding that it poses no risk to health in humans at current exposure levels.

In 2007, an expert panel convened by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) concluded that sucralose was safe for human consumption at current levels of use and exposure. In addition, there are no known side effects associated with this non-nutritive sweetener.

Does sucralose cause diarrhea?

 

Sucralose is made from sugar and looks like sugar, but it has no calories. It’s sold under the names Splenda and Splenda Zero. It’s marketed as a low-calorie sugar substitute that can be used in place of sugar in cooking and baking.

Sucralose doesn’t affect blood sugar levels like other artificial sweeteners, but it does raise insulin levels. This can cause some people to get diarrhea because their bodies are more sensitive to insulin than others’.

For most people who consume sucralose, diarrhea isn’t a problem because their bodies don’t react badly to insulin spikes caused by the sweetener. In fact, many people who use sucralose don’t even notice they’re eating it unless they read labels carefully or look for “sugar-free” foods at the grocery store.

Does sucralose cause gas?

 

No.  According to the Splenda blog, sucralose consumption will not cause gastrointestinal gas or bloating since it is not fermentable in the gut. In the event that gas and bloating occur when a person consumes food containing sucralose, it should be attributed to other ingredients in the food.

Will sucralose break a fast?

 

Neither sucrose nor fructose breaks a fast, as they do not contain calories and do not affect blood sugar or insulin levels. The term “fast” refers to not consuming any calories from food or drink.

Is the chlorine in sucralose safe?

 

Yes. As sucrose contains chlorine, it is 600 times sweeter than sugar and cannot be digested by the body. When swallowed, neither chlorine separates from sucralose nor accumulates in the body. The natural element chlorine is found in a variety of foods as well as in table salt.

Can pets have food with sucralose?

 

Yes, Sucralose is safe for dogs to eat. Unlike xylitol, which causes a life-threatening drop in blood sugar within 10 to 60 minutes of eating food containing xylitol.

Does sucralose cause weight gain?

 

After 30 studies lasting 10 years and 7 studies lasting 6 months on 406,910 people, it is surprising that sucralose has been linked to obesity instead of the opposite, according to the Canadian Medical Association Journal in 2017.

It was not convincing, as Time suggested, since people who consume more artificial sweeteners may consume more processed food, increasing the risk of obesity.

Is sucralose safe during pregnancy?

 

According to animal and human feeding studies, it is safe for pregnant or nursing women. Sucralose was found in the breast milk of 13 lactating women in 2015 (as it almost cannot be metabolized), after they consumed sweetener packets, diet soda, or other sources of sucralose.

Does sucralose cause headaches?

 

Sucralose does not cause headaches. Sucralose, which was reported in 2006, consistently triggered a woman’s menstrually related migraine.

Does sucralose cause allergies?

 

Sucralose is not a common allergen, but it is possible to be allergic to it. The FDA states that sucralose is safe for most children and adults, but it is recommended that you speak with your doctor before using it if you suffer from allergies or other health conditions.

The American Academy of Pediatrics provides guidelines on the use of sucralose in children and adults. According to their website, “Sucralose may be used in beverages, desserts, and chewing gum”. They also state that there are no known adverse effects associated with sucralose consumption.

The Food and Drug Administration has approved sucralose for use as an artificial sweetener in food products such as baked goods, frozen desserts, chewing gum, canned fruits and vegetables, and canned tuna. It can also be used in non-alcoholic beverages such as coffee drinks or energy drinks where sugar would normally be added for sweetness.

What is sucralose side effects?

 
sucralose-3537207

Sucralose is a non-caloric artificial sweetener. It’s made by chemically altering the sugar molecule to make it 600 times sweeter than regular table sugar.

Sucralose has no calories, but it does affect your gut bacteria and insulin response.

Sucralose side effects

Some people experience mild side effects when they consume sucralose, such as:

Headaches

Allergic reactions, including hives and swelling of the face, lips or tongue

Nausea

Abdominal pain

Upset stomach or diarrhea

Frequently asked questions

 

Is sucralose keto?

 

Yes, We consume most of our daily calories (90%) from fat, moderately from protein, and little from carbohydrates on a ketogenic diet. In medical applications, keto diet is used to treat epilepsy, but is increasingly used to lose weight. Because it contains carbs and calories, sucrose does affect ketosis.

Is sucralose natural?

 

No, Sucralose is a sugar substitute that’s used in place of real sugar to sweeten foods and drinks. The FDA has approved sucralose for use in a variety of foods, including baked goods, frozen desserts, gelatin desserts, puddings, fruit juices, carbonated beverages and non-alcoholic mixers. It also has no effect on blood glucose or insulin levels.

Is sucralose halal?

 

Yes, Sucralose is a type of sweetener that is made from sugar and chlorine. This means it does not contain any animal products or alcohol, which are both haram (prohibited) in Islam.

Is sucralose kosher?

 

Yes, It is pareve kosher. A kosher or Passover certification is possible with E955 since it meets all “Kashruth” requirements.

Is sucralose vegan?

 

Yes, It is vegan because it is derived from sugar and no animal ingredients are used in its manufacturing process. Therefore, vegetarians can include it in their diet.

Is sucralose gluten-free?

 

Yes, In accordance with FDA definitions of gluten-free, In addition to wheat, rye, and barley, it does not contain crossbred varieties of these grains.   People with celiac disease are generally considered safe to consume it.

The difference between sucralose and aspartame?

 

Sucralose and aspartame are both artificial sweeteners used to add sweetness to food and drinks without adding calories. They are both approved for use in the United States, but there are some differences worth noting between the two.

The first difference is that sucralose is made from sugar molecules, whereas aspartame is created from amino acids. This means that sucralose is about 600 times sweeter than sugar and about 200 times sweeter than aspartame, so it takes less of it to achieve a desired level of sweetness. In addition, sucralose has a much longer shelf life than aspartame—it can last up to five years without losing its taste or quality.

Another difference between the two sweeteners is their chemical structure: sucralose consists of a combination of three molecules (sucrose + lactose + fructose), while aspartame contains only two (phenylalanine + aspartic acid). These differences affect how they interact with other chemicals in your body, which affects their health effects.

Conclusion

 

Sucralose has been considered by many health experts to be one of the safest artificial sweeteners in the world. Commonly known as Splenda, sucralose is best used with care in order to preserve its shelf life and enjoy it safely. It is also recommended to use it while reading it’s precautions since they can affect your health if not followed properly.

If you have any feedback on the sucralose? Let we know in the comments.

Sophie Feng

Sophie Feng

Sophia Feng, Marketing Manager of Grade Chemical, specializes in writing food chemical article, custom chemical article, industry chemical blog.

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